A job is a part of one’s life and such work not only physical needs are fulfilled through monetary gain but also giving psychological satisfaction. It is the work and through it the individual finals opportunities for the satisfaction of many of his social personal needs.
The term job satisfaction refers to an individuals general attitude toward his or her job. A person with high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitude toward his job while a person who dissatisfaction with his job holds negative attitude towards his job.
Most manufacture believes that satisfied employees are more productive than dissatisfied employees. A sound human ensures management based on norms of social welfare contribute sub statically to better employee relations, high productivities and consequently better predictabilities it an organization.
The term job satisfaction not only covers the satisfaction derived from the job by labourers but their surroundings. Supervisor and managers, his way of approaching and handling the labourers to a accomplish the particular job, nature of the communication, workplace, work particulars etc.
It one company wants to sustain permanently in the market that concern should work with ‘satisfied employees’. Satisfied employee not only increases the company’s corporate status in around the society but also increase the social value. All actions and creation if the company normally nit the merle goes down, it automatically tells us that the company is working with satisfied employees should be placed in high politics and promulgation of the top management, because job satisfaction the employee is not in the hand of the employee. So top management must take serious steps for satisfaction and development of employee.
The concept of satisfaction came into light after the famous ‘Hawthorne studies’ these studies were concluded to fadeout the nature of relationship between improvement in productivity. Prior to these studies researcher believe that these was a direct relationship between working environment and workers efficiency. The; Hawthorne studies’ indicated that there is no such direct relationship between the two but that the relationship is indirect mediated by the workers attitude towards work, work situation.
The industrial revolution has been the revolution not only in technology but also in human relation as technology grew, more and more complex people become more dependent on one another and the problem of working together becomes. Trouble some the workers started to recognize their needs and these workers organized themselves to light with the management to satisfy some of their needs like working conditions, working hours etc.
At this stage the government also realized the problem of the industrial workers and the way the exploited by the employers. So that the government passed some social basis lotions for the protection of workers from the clutches of employers.
In the middle of the 19th century, Indian capitalists started participating in Industrial Development. Cotton Textile Industry, Iron and Steel Industry, Sugar etc were set up and developed. Till 1923, the Government did not show any positive interest in the development of industries. But in 1924, it introduced the system of protection to encourage deserving industries. Under this system, the Government selected a few industries and protected them against foreign competition. The protected industries naturally developed very fast.
The shyness of Indian capital, lack of enterprise, absence of technical skill and comparative inefficiency of labour were important factors responsible for slow industrial growth in India during the past. Besides, there was no proper planning for balanced growth of industries in the country
After Independence, India has made remarkable progress in the industrial field. Industrialization has been sped up since 1951, when the first five-year plan was introduced. Capital goods industries have been given great importance and strong foundations have been laid for the development of these industries. Many of the major industries like cotton and jute, textiles, coal etc., have made considerable progress since Independence. With the setting up of several new industries like fertilizers, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, rubber, oils etc many of the gaps in industrial production have also been filled up.
History of Spinning Industry
For thousands of years the distaff and spindle was the only tool used for spinning. Up to the 1500’s the spinning wheel, was the only tool in Europe. This spinning wheel did not make yarn strong enough for thread.
As the textile industry developed in England and Western Europe, manufacturers employed women to spin and weave at home, an arrangement known as cottage system. Even after spinning became mechanized (a development that marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution), family clothing and household textiles were often woven from home spun yarn.
The first of several machines that revolutionized the spinning industry was the Spinning Jenny of James Hargreaves, invented about 1764. The next invention was Richard Arkwright’s Spinning Frame, the first power driven textile machine, patented in 1769. In 1779 Samuel Cromption introduced his hand-operated Spinning Mule, which combined the best features of Jenny and Frame and produced yarn both fine and strong.
In 1793, Hannah Slater, founder of the first cotton spinning mill in the United States-developed a plied thread (several yarn twisted together) that was strong and could be made by machine.
Steam power in the spinning industries was applied first to the Spinning Frame (1785) and later to the Spinning Mule (1800). Mechanisation in the 19th century increased production efficiently.
Definition of Job Satisfaction
Various authors have given Different of job satisfaction. Hoppock ‘ describes job satisfaction as “any combination of psychological and environment circumstances that cause any person truthfully to say that I am satisfied with my job”.
Lock (1976) defined job satisfaction as “a pleasurable of positive emotional state, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experience.”
B. Hallen Gellmor defines job satisfaction in the following words “it is the result of various attitude the persons hold to wards related factors and towards like in general.”
Role of Industrialization in developing Economies
India is a mixed economy where State Government and private enterprises exist. Industrialization has a major role to play in the economic development of developing economies. Modern industry could directly or indirectly raise the productivity of the labour force and increase output and income. Raising incomes are expected to increase the volume of savings which could create more investment in industry. This progressive spiral could lead the economy from ‘take off’ into ‘self-sustaining’ growth.
Industrialization could also boost up the demand for agricultural produce, since it could lend to more employment and more purchasing power with the people resulting in greater demand for agricultural produce. Myrdal call these effects as “spread effects” through the changing in demand and in supply. As a result of domestic investment which lead to improve demand side in the supply side, there could be ‘spread effect’ due to reduction in the cost structure of industries as industrial growth gathers momentum.
Private enterprise may be praised for this development. Through planning of economic resource, provision of finance, granting of protection, expectation of internal and external markets, and through securing foreign aid, the Government of India has laid the foundation for solid industrial progress in the country.
Cotton Textile Industry
In India Textile Industry is the most important industry providing employment to large number of people next to agriculture. The textile industry has pioneered the growth of modern industrial consciousness in the country. A large number of established entrepreneurs like Tatas Birlas and Mab atlas started their entrepreneur’s career with cotton textile industry. After gaining sufficient experience in these industries, they branched out into a large number of other industries.
The real foundation of the cotton textile industry was laid in 1818 when a cotton mill was set up in Calcutta. After 1954 many more mills were started in Bombay, Ahmedabed, Sholapur and Nagpur. There were over 800 textile mills in the country which produced over 1260 million kg of yarn and over 4140 million meters of cloth in 1982.
A cotton mill in Madras could necessarily serve the Tamil Nadu region much more effectively than a mill from Mumbai or Ahmedabad. This was the reason for Tamil Nadu to become an important centre (of cotton textile) in textile industry.
The primary division of the cotton textile industry in this country can be classified as spinning mills, composite mills, power looms and handlooms.
50 years ago there were only 107 spinning mills in India. Rapid development of spinning mills lead to the increase in production of cotton yarn. At present, there are 1565 spinning mills in India. India is the biggest yarn exporter with a share of 28% of the world market and is known for the quality of its fine count cotton yarns.